Of the 16,952 asylum applications received by Ecuador in 2012, only 1,543 were accepted—a rate of 9.1 percent, which was considerably lower than the previous average acceptance rate of nearly 25 percent. Available Online. Available Online. Between 400,000 and 500,000 Ecuadorians were estimated to live in the United States in 2003; nearly 500,000 were estimated to live in Spain in 2005. First, it examines remittances, a key element of the migration-development nexus, from a gendered perspective. From here, slow trickles of emigration continued. The vast majority of Ecuadorians have legal residence due to Italy’s numerous and generous regularization programs. In the rural communities of Cañar, indigenous coyotes are more than facilitators of migration: they are community members operating amid broader structural constraints, which have led to the emergence of specific trends in the facilitation of irregularized migration, yet they are expected to adhere to communal principles of reciprocity and trust. Anuario de Estadísticas. In 2007, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa’s administration began a broad-based campaign to reach out to Ecuadorians overseas, or the “fifth region” as the diaspora was called, playing upon Ecuador’s four traditional geographical regions. 2005. The 2010 Ecuador census found 63,888 people who had lived overseas in 2005; nearly half in Spain and about one-quarter in the United States. Life and Death in Early Colonial Ecuador. In addition, the Ecuadorian government has sought to encourage return migration, while the Spanish government has created incentives for migrants to leave Spain. ... 5 percent of GDP to return public services to pre-migration levels. 2002. Ecuador’s low unemployment and government spending may help the transition, but challenges remain. Many Ecuadorians who benefitted from the 2005 regularization were subsequently able to gain Spanish citizenship. The framing of return from above and below in Ecuadorian migration: a project, a myth, or a political device? The long-standing conflict in Colombia has driven tens of thousands of its citizens into Ecuador, making it the country in Latin America with the largest refugee population. This is a country report on Ecuador for the Migration Policy Institute. Not surprisingly, the long-term core migrant-sending region, Cañar and Azuay provinces, had the highest percentages of recipient households, at 24.2 percent and 15.3 percent respectively; the biggest population centers, Guayas and Pichincha provinces, had the largest number of recipient households, at 72,160 and 55,376 respectively. Between 400,000 and 500,000 Ecuadorians were estimated to live in the United States in 2003; nearly 500,000 were estimated to live in Spain in 2005. Nearly 147,000 Colombians lived in Ecuador as refugees or in refugee-like situations in 2014, according to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates. Starting in the late 1970s, in south-central Ecuador, household. Dél-Amerika a világgazdaság és világpolitika színpadán mindig is függőségek béklyójában volt jelen. In 2008, the Great World Recession made for a decline in Ecuadorian emigration. affected by the economic crisis. ... receiving large numbers of immigrants. The second wave left in the late 1990s and early 2000s and mostly went to Spain, the United States, and Italy. 2008. Oxford, UK: COMPAS. Mass migration is hardly new in the Americas. Caracas: Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Az elemzések közös szempontrendszer alapján, a szerzők egyéni látásmódját megtartva készültek. Este trabajo indaga sobre el modo en que se conciben los procesos migratorios y los sujetos migrantes en la implementación del modelo de Migración Laboral Temporal y Circular (MLTC), en particular, en los acuerdos relativos a la regulación y ordenación de los flujos migratorios de España con Colombia y Ecuador (2001-2008), respectivamente. Gross emigration rates often differ substantially from net rates, although the difference varies from country to country. 202-266-1900. 10 Nov. 2015. A specific mass migration that is seen as especially influential to the course of history may be referred to as a 'great migration'. U.S. Coast Guard. Available Online. 2011 Census. In addition to the border region, many Colombians live in Quito and Guayaquil. Although it is a small Andean country of approximately 15.7 million people, […] 202-266-1940 | fax. This state-led transnationalism coincided with the 2008 global economic crisis and Spain’s efforts to encourage unemployed immigrants to return to their home countries. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics. Both countries have experienced mass emigration in recent decades. Eleven percent of Ecuadorians (1.5 million people) live outside Ecuador, primarily in Spain and the United States. Finotelli, Claudia and Joaquín Arango. Dr. Brad D. Jokisch, Associate Professor of Geography at Ohio University, published an article on “Ecuador: From Mass Emigration to Return Migration?” for the Migration Policy Institute. Desde allí se abordan las nociones de cooperación, regularidad, (co)desarrollo y circularidad, como conceptos centrales que fundamentan la formulación y el desarrollo de estos programas. These visas are valid for 90 days, and require a passport that is valid for at least six months, a return ticket, and proof of sufficient funds for your stay in the country. The first diaspora began around 1880, two decades after the Unification of Italy, and ended in the 1920s to early-1940s with the rise of Fascism in Italy. Census figures show a 99 percent increase in the numbers of Of the roughly 10,700 Ecuadorians granted legal permanent residency status in the United States annually between 2000 and 2013, more than 80 percent gained it through the “family sponsored preference” or “immediate relatives of U.S. citizens” categories of admission. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Ecuador’s geographical variety is nearly matched by its diverse migration patterns. Based on a 2005 Ecuadorian government survey, researchers have found that the late 1990s wave of migration reduced poverty among households with a migrant abroad by about 20 percent, and that recipient households received about $1,600 in remittances annually. Ecuador immigration statistics for 2010 was 325,366.00, a 73.62% increase from 2005. It is hard being the different one all the time: gringos and racialized identity in lifestyle migration to Ecuador. The term applies broadly to Arab-speaking, predominantly Christian, immigrants whose ancestry can be traced to Syria, Palestine, or Lebanon. Rafael Correa is the first president of Ecuador to reach out to Ecuadorians overseas. Kyle, David. The increase is attributable mostly to an influx of Colombians, whose numbers surged more than 38,000 since 2001 to 89,931 in 2010, and a 164 percent increase in the number of Peruvians, from 5,682 in 2001 to 15,016 in 2010. Contemporary Migration Issues Facing Ecuador. "The History of Immigration to Australia." Regularisation of unauthorized immigrants in Italy and Spain: determinants and effects. The first wave occurred when migrants from southern Ecuador departed for the United States. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Deportations (removals and returns) of Ecuadorians have fluctuated between 2,000 and 3,000 since 2008. EMIGRATION AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT ON EASTERN EUROPE 6 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND INTRODUCTION 1. An 1890 census of Guayaquil, Ecuador’s largest city, recorded fewer than 5,000 immigrants, more than half of whom were from Peru. In addition, some Ecuadorians have been deported from Spain or the United States, while others have chosen to leave the United States because of an inability to achieve legal status and increased difficulties for unauthorized immigrants. 2014. By 1534, Pizarro managed to overcome the Incan Empire (which extended from present day Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Chile) and claimed the territory for Spain. The Ecuadorian government has struggled to address the refugee crisis. 2013. Although the U.S. Department of State reported in 2014 that most Ecuadorian trafficking victims are women and children within the country, Ecuador is also the destination of exploited women and girls from Colombia, Paraguay, and Peru, and the source region for a small number of Ecuadorian women who are sex trafficked to Colombia and Brazil. Most women worked as domestics while men found employment in the construction, agriculture, and service industries. Ecuador’s decision in 2000 to switch its currency from the sucre to the U.S. dollar, known as dollarization, attracted many Peruvian migrants. Interested in research on Migration Policy? Remittances from Spain fell from about $1.2 billion in 2007 to $944 million in 2010. Statistical Yearbook, Various Years. A comparative analysis is made of the evolution of migration policies in the three countries, based on a legislative review, policy analysis, and institutional measures adopted. Los resultados muestran que los programas de MLTC forman parte de los mecanismos de control y gestión migratoria que se inscriben dentro de dinámicas políticas globales, regionales y nacionales. Resumen de Historia Del Ecuador. The Correa administration’s state-led transnationalism may have been designed more to continue the flow of remittances than to actually encourage permanent return migration. "Australia's Migration History." As shoe and textile factories sprouted up across Massachusetts, railroad building accelerated, connecting Boston to towns across the region and markets further west. Available Online. 10 Nov. 2015. Since the mid-2000s emigration has slowed considerably, and the earlier waves have been replaced by a steady flow of Ecuadorians leaving to reunite with relatives abroad, most notably in Spain and, to a lesser extent, the United States and Italy. Ilyen értelemben Dél-Amerika tanulmányozása a globális folyamatok árnyoldalának vizsgálata, ami a szintén sokféle függőségi viszonynak kitett Kelet-Közép-Európával való összevetésre is lehetőséget kínál. If realized, Venezuela’s mass migration would overtake past refugee crises—for instance, Syria in the 2010s or Afghanistan in the 1980s. Ecuador faces several migration-related challenges. 1995. In 2008, the Great World Recession made for a decline in Ecuadorian emigration. There was almost no emigration in Moldova prior to the Russian financial crisis of 1998. largest external population displacement in modern Latin American history. September 4, 2009 / 2 comments / 2575 views By Merry Pool and Jelena Kopanja, FI2W contributors. de la construcción del vínculo entre migración y desarrollo bajo la perspectiva de la gobernabilidad migratoria. Return migrants may bring with them capital, business experience, and a desire to innovate and create social change, but the economic and political environment contexts are critical. The most important changes for Ecuadorians in Spain have been the increase in the number of Ecuadorians with Spanish nationality, a shift in immigration pathways to family unification, and most recently an uptick in return migration. Herrera, Gioconda, Maria Isabel, and Alexandra Escobar. Women account for about 52 percent of Ecuadorian migrants, down from more than 55 percent during the first wave of migration to Spain. Las transformaciones de la migración transnacional del Ecuador, 1993-2003. Quito, Ecuador: FLACSO-Plan Migración, Comunicación y Desarrollo. In the first half of 2011 an upsurge of irregular migration to Italy was recorded, with some 25,000 unauthorised migrants from Tunisia reaching Italy and Malta by sea. Although efforts to pull and push Ecuadorians to return initially had minimal success, return migration from Spain has increased recently—a pattern likely to continue in the short term. Return migrants can repatriate their belongings duty-free and qualify for employment assistance and start-up funds for certain productive investments via Plan Cucayo. We also find that the length of time spent in an irregular status decreases the probability to return. Since 2007, conditions for Ecuadorians in Spain have deteriorated drastically. Migration remained slow but persistent during the 1970s; migrants from numerous communities in Azuay and Cañar provinces joined the clandestine migration networks that led people through Central America and Mexico en route to the United States. As Ecuador experienced the mass emigration of the early 2000s, it also received significant inflows, mostly from its immediate neighbors, Peru and Colombia. A significant stream of remittances has flowed to Ecuador, the result of family commitments and plans for an anticipated return. 2014. Emigrants came from every province, and were more urban and better educated; they also came from various ethnicities, including members of the Saraguro and Otavalo indigenous groups. Migrant smuggling. Spain recorded 396,658 fewer foreign nationals in 2014 than the previous year. Keywords: International migration, Return migration, Crisis, Ecuador, Spain 1 Agence Française de Développement; DIAL – IRD. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. 2014 UNHCR country operations profile-Ecuador. Although efforts to pull and push Ecuadorians to return initially had minimal success, return migration from Spain has increased recently—a pattern likely to continue in the short term. Several Spanish immigration policies have had an important impact on Ecuadorian migrants. Second it does so in a comparative empirical perspective, focusing on remittance behaviour in two contrasting settings, Albania and Ecuador. Since the early 1980s, Ecuador has experienced two major waves of emigration, sending 10 percent to 15 percent of Ecuadorians overseas. This migrant flow was much more geographically and socioeconomically diverse. This debt crisis lead to an increase in inflation and a decrease in wages. In the mid– to late–1990s, Ecuador entered a political and economic crisis just as clandestine transportation to the United States became increasingly expensive and dangerous. Jokisch, Brad and David Kyle. The actual number of Peruvians and Colombians is unknown because the borders are porous, many Colombian refugees avoid official counts, and the dangers of the Colombia-Ecuador border region make data collection difficult. Copyright © 2001-2021 Migration Policy Institute. Most of these migrants paid intermediaries—coyotes or document forgers—for clandestine passage to the United States, overwhelmingly to metro New York, but also to Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, and Minneapolis. The breakdown in peace talks in 2002 prompted a surge in refugees, and even though the Colombian government and the FARC have been in peace negotiations since 2012, government and FARC military operations continue. Emigration from Ecuador is a relatively recent phenomenon, but one that has had a huge impact on the country's demographics and economy. Ecuadorians also went to several other western European countries, most notably Italy. The global recession starting in 2008 and Spain’s deep economic problems also discouraged further emigration. This mass migration is considered the . Ecuadorians were less well educated than most other Latin American immigrant groups in Spain and appear to be only moderately better educated than Ecuadorians in the United States. About half of annual remittances come from the United States and 43 percent from Spain. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. It updates the report I wrote in 2007. The number of Ecuadorians apprehended increased from 3,298 in fiscal year (FY) 2011 to 5,680 in FY 2013. A 1986 U.S. immigration law that legalized nearly 3 million unauthorized immigrants resulted in lawful permanent resident status for 16,292 Ecuadorians, many of whom have since sponsored the legal emigration of family members. Spain, Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Le cas des Équatoriens en Espagne, From Labor Circulation to International Migration: The Case of South-Central Ecuador, Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses (Migration Policy Institute). 2014. Since the wave of the early 2000s, Ecuadorian emigration has slowed considerably, especially to Spain. ———. All content in this area was uploaded by Brad D. Jokisch on Nov 24, 2014. In January, 308 Venezuelans were expelled or agreed to return to their countries when faced with deportation. The recent influx of Syrian refugees into Europe has grabbed public attention and dominated the policy debate.1 But the past quarter century has seen a persistent and much larger wave of mostly economic migration As Ecuadorians have immigrated since the 1960s and have had many children in the United States, it is not surprising that the number of people who identify as Ecuadorian (approximately 665,000 in 2013) is 55 percent higher than the number of Ecuadorian immigrants. As oil prices fell in the 1980s, Ecuadorian migration to Venezuela appears to have diminished. The population of what is now Ecuador witnessed considerable disruption between 1470 and 1540. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica Italy. Furthermoreit is , placing a lot of pressure on public services and informal job markets in the main host countries, while also contributing to an increase in social tensionsthere. With a population of 91,145 in 2014 they constitute the second largest Latin American immigrant group behind Peruvians, and the 13th-largest national group overall. 2001, 2010 Census (Censo de Población y Vivienda). More than half a million Venezuelans have crossed into Ecuador this year as part of one of the largest mass migrations in Latin American history, the United Nations said on Friday. Roberts, Lois J. A moderate number of Chinese and a smaller number of other Asians have immigrated to Ecuador recently. Drawing on a, The termination of a semi-feudal labor system and its replacement with wages and land markets in the Ecuadorian sierra has profoundly affected the ability of smallholder agriculturalists to make a living. 2011. Gioconda Herrera, Maria Cristina Carillo, and Alicia Torres. Despite the importance of international migration, estimates of between-country migration flows are still imprecise. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 ph. Since the 1980s, Ecuador had a two major emigration waves. 2012. 20 Less spectacular than mass flight induced by war and civil conflict is the modest increase in labour migration that has been observed in the wake of revolts, in particular from Tunisia. 2011. According to data from national immigration authorities and other sources, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean host an estimated 2.4 million refugees and migrants from Venezuela, … We place indigenous migrant narratives of mobility and identity at the center of our analysis of human smuggling, articulating a counternarrative to that of criminalization prevalent in transnational debates of irregularized migration, national security, and border control. This event also hindered two of Ecuador’s major cash flows: remittances and exports. U.S. Census Bureau. The Programa de Abono Anticipado de Presentación a Extranjeros (APRE) was designed to encourage legal immigrants to return to their home country by offering them free transportation and their unemployment benefits in a lump sum. Ecuador also is an important migrant destination. The African slaves established a maroon society (freed slaves), and maintained autonomy during much of the colonial era. Reliable record keeping of migration events is typically available only in the developed world, and the best existing methods to produce global migration flow estimates are burdened by strong assumptions. Buenos Aires, Argentina: OIM. Within a few years after the crisis, a period of mass emigration occurred, thus providing the possibility of controlling for pre-migration voting behavior. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimated that 170,000 unauthorized Ecuadorians were in the United States in 2012. Ecuadorians were able to migrate in such large numbers so quickly because of an existing agreement allowing Ecuadorians to enter Spain as tourists without visas (the law changed in 2003, see sidebar). Global Networks 14 (1): 80-102. To aid in the country's recovery, Ecuadorian President … and describing their impact on the Greek … More than 85 percent of Ecuadorians were employed; men primarily in construction, agriculture, and industry, while women were concentrated in domestic service, hotel work, and commerce. First Wave Immigration, 1820-1880 During the nineteenth century, Boston evolved from a bustling port town to a booming industrial city. Web. Most worked in restaurants as busboys or dishwashers, and a smaller number worked in factories or construction. Second it does so in a comparative empirical perspective, focusing on remittance behaviour in two contrasting settings, Albania and Ecuador. Oxford, UK: IMPACIM. Both men and women sent just over 2,000 euros per year, mostly to parents (60 percent) and children (20 percent). Combined, Colombian (49.5 percent), U.S. (8.6 percent), and Peruvian (8.3 percent) immigrant populations accounted for two-thirds of all foreign born in Ecuador in 2010. The Case of Ecuadorians in Europe. Three major international migration phases are analysed–emigration, return migration and immigration–and the main socio‐economic and cultural effects of these migration trends are discussed. Available Online. Ecuadorian Return Migration In 2008, the Great World Recession made for a decline in Ecuadorian emigration. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. ———. The importance of remittances to the Ecuadorian economy, measured as percent of gross domestic product (GDP), has fluctuated based on the strength of the Ecuadorian economy; total remittances have held steady at about $2.5 billion since 2010, but as oil revenues have increased, the relative contribution to the overall economy has declined to about 3 percent. A smaller number of slaves were imported to Quito, Cuenca, and other urban areas. This mass migration is considered the . Jokisch, Brad and Jason Pribilsky. From 2006 to 2013 more Ecuadorians acquired Spanish nationality (232,645) than any other immigrant group; most under a law allowing Latin American immigrants to naturalize after two years of continuous legal residence in Spain. The 2010 Ecuadorian census recorded 181,848 foreign born, just less than 1.3 percent of Ecuador’s then population of 14.3 million. As seen elsewhere in Latin America, particularly in Costa Rica and Panama, even small numbers of relatively affluent foreigners can have a significant economic and cultural effect. Carrasco Carpio and Carlos García Serrano. Return migration as a consequence of the economic crisis in the Northern countries have stirred intense political and academic interest. Figure 1: Percentage distribution of emigration from Remittances are an important part of Ecuador’s economy and for many households (see Figure 3). Source: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, 2008. Madrid: Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social. Few Spaniards or other Europeans immigrated to Ecuador during the colonial era, which lasted until 1822. Return migration from the United States of lawful permanent residents has never been large, but without the passage of significant immigration reform, more unauthorized Ecuadorians may choose to return. Enmarcados en la idea de una migración ordenada, los esquemas de MLTC actúan como dispositivos asimétricos de impronta Norte-Sur, ofreciéndose como soluciones de beneficio mutuo para el desarrollo de las sociedades de origen, de destino y para los migrantes. The people of Ecuador’s Southern Highlands have been on the move for generations, and migration is deeply embedded in the social and cultural landscape. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. The law implemented a municipal registry system, or padrón, through which it is believed that most immigrants, including unauthorized immigrants, have registered because it grants access to the national health system and to schools. Available Online. It is unknown how many “Lebanese” migrated to Ecuador, but the economic and political influence of their descendants has been much greater than their numbers. Source: Ministerio de Seguridad Social, Spain. The most recent wave of emigration was instigated by an economic and political crisis; the first wave in the 1980s was as well, but had been developing for more than 20 years when the debt crisis occurred. Los acuerdos de regulación la... Crise économique et migrations de retour. Furthermoreit is , placing a lot of pressure on public services and informal job markets in the main host countries, while also contributing to an increase in social tensionsthere. For its part, Spain offered plentiful, low-skilled work in the informal economy, and migrants did not have to worry about language differences. Ecuador: International Organization for Migration. If a large number of migrants do return to Ecuador, they will need to find employment and reintegrate into Ecuadorian society. Between 2008 and 2013 Spain’s family unification policy allowed nearly 157,000 Ecuadorians to join family members in the country, facilitating legal residence and thus Spanish nationality (see Table 3). Research paper 217, UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Service, Washington, DC. particularities in the responses built in the countries studied. Return migration to traditional high-emigration communities in Mexico has dwindled to a trickle, as U.S. immigration control policies incentivized unauthorized migrants to settle permanently in that country and reunify their families on the U.S. side of the border. The crisis was directly responsible for a second wave of emigration, which sent between 500,000 and 1 million Ecuadorians overseas from 1998 to 2006, to the United States and Italy, but mostly to Spain, where few Ecuadorians lived prior to the crisis. Source: World Bank Prospects Group, Annual Remittances Data, October 2014 update. Boccagni, Paolo. Between 1930 and 1959, 11,025 Ecuadorians received lawful permanent resident status in the United States, according to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Inca invaded from Peru during the latter half of the 15th century, and Spanish conquerors arrived in 1534. 202-266-1940 | fax. Ecuadorians are heavily concentrated in Liguria (Genoa) and Lombardia (Milan). Dr. Brad D. Jokisch, Associate Professor of Geography at Ohio University, published an article on “Ecuador: From Mass Emigration to Return Migration?” for the Migration Policy Institute. This paper describes the process patterns, and scale of the international emigration phenomenon from south-central Ecuador. Ecuadorian Return Migration. 10 Nov. 2015. ... Rafael Correa warned against a mass return. But in the early 1980s, oil prices collapsed, causing a debt crisis, an increase in inflation, and a dramatic decrease in wages. 2013 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Emigration from Ecuador is a relatively recent phenomenon, but one that has had a huge impact on the country's demographics and economy.Eleven percent of Ecuadorians (1.5 million people) live outside Ecuador, primarily in Spain and the United States.Between 400,000 and 500,000 Ecuadorians were estimated to live in the United States in 2003; nearly 500,000 were estimated to live in Spain in 2005. Regional spillovers "Australia's Migration History." Migration, remittances, and poverty in Ecuador. Various years. Trade relations with and seasonal migration to New York became an avenue for emigration in the 1950s and 1960s. Until that time, (should it happen at all) Ecuador will likely be addressing the complexities associated with a large refugee population, return migration, and regional increases in lifestyle migrants. Migrant smuggling is a dynamic global criminal activity. This is a country report on Ecuador for the Migration Policy Institute. Of that total, 56,466 were Ecuadorian, including those who had acquired Spanish nationality. 2010. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In January 2001, Ecuador and Spain signed a bilateral agreement that provided legal work visas for nearly 25,000 unauthorized Ecuadorians. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State. Pay-to-Go Schemes and Other Noncoercive Return Programs: Is Scale Possible. There is little social research on Ecuadorians in the United States. Ecuadorians are categorized as foreign nationals, or, if they have been granted Spanish citizenship, as Spanish nationals. One of the most important migration-related developments since the mid-2000s has been the increase in return migration, especially from Spain. About one-third lives in or near Madrid, and Italy Peruvian ecuador from mass emigration to return migration in Latin America, has. 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Percent to 15 percent of Ecuador ’ s bur… this mass migration new emigration ” formed and reintegrate into society... Come from the 2005 Spanish regularization law ( Real Decreto 2393/2004 ) that was more restrictive of million., politikai és gazdasági háttér feltárásával, 2009 / 2 comments / 2575 views by Merry Pool and Jelena,... Acquired Spanish nationality substantially from net rates, although the difference varies from country country... The prolonged economic downturn has been the main socio‐economic and cultural effects these... Signed a bilateral agreement that provided legal work visas for nearly 25,000 unauthorized Ecuadorians were detained by the to.

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