At least nine districts in the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater, and as of 2017 an estimated 1.04 crore people were afflicted by arsenic poisoning. 2. There are two branches of government. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. [155] Of the 30 per cent, however, at least 24 per cent are Bengali-speaking Muslims. [84] At night, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. People in the state have often stood up to authoritarian governments. [90] Part of the world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans in southern West Bengal. It has been observed that there has been a slow but steady decline in the percentage share of industry and agriculture over the years. In the 16th century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. Marwari, Maithil and Bhojpuri speakers are scattered throughout the state; various indigenous ethnic Buddhist communities such as the Sherpas, Bhutias, Lepchas, Tamangs, Yolmosand et… But in West Bengal 90% of the Muslims are Bengali speaking. By. “Just as they have tried to divide Hindus and Muslims, they are now trying to create a rift between Bengali and non-Bengalis,” he said. In contrast, the service sector has grown at a rate higher than the national rate. Particularly on cultural occasions, men also wear traditional costumes such as the panjabi with dhuti while women wear salwar kameez or sari. [79] The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. [27] Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh, Pundravardhana and the Suhma Kingdom. [19], In 1947, at the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly voted on the Partition of Bengal along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan, which came to be known be as East Pakistan and later became the independent Bangladesh. The coastal region of Purba Medinipur exhibits coastal vegetation; the predominant tree is the Casuarina. 4) Some groups are very distinct. [167], The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage it shares with neighbouring Bangladesh. Bengalis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including Rôshogolla, Chômchôm, Kalojam and several kinds of sondesh. [141] There are also private bus companies. In most of the state, cycle rickshaws and in Kolkata, hand-pulled rickshaws and electric rickshaws are used for short-distance travel. [12] The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in an influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. [194] Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes hilsa preparations, a favourite among Bengalis. [214][215] Kolkata has played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. [195] Most of the people also consume eggs, chicken, mutton, and shrimp. Panta bhat (rice soaked overnight in water) with onion and green chili is a traditional dish consumed in rural areas. Notable handloom saris include tant, jamdani, garad, korial, baluchari, tussar and muslin. [207], The University of Calcutta, the oldest and one of the most prestigious public universities in India, has 136 affiliated colleges. [230] Other major Bengali newspapers are: Bartaman, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Jago Bangla, Uttarbanga Sambad and Ganashakti. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. Trend of Muslim Population in West Bengal (in per cent) Census Population Projected Population 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 19.85 20.00 20.46 21.52 23.61 25.25 26.86 27.89 28.70 29.36 Source: Census of India In West Bengal Hindus … Broadband Internet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL and by other private companies. [89] Reserves and protected and unclassed forests constitute 59.4%, 31.8% and 8.9%, respectively, of forested areas, as of 2009. Besides Buddha Purnima, Dashain, or Dusshera, Holi, Diwali, Losar, Namsoong or the Lepcha New Year, and Losoong are the other major festivals of the Darjeeling Himalayan region. By Aritra Singha On Dec 2, 2020. Sensing opportunity, politicians are jumping into the fray. The Ganges delta and the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. The Scottish Church College, the oldest Christian liberal arts college in South Asia, started in 1830. By Aritra Singha On Dec 2, 2020. [159] Data from 2010 to 2014 showed the life expectancy in the state was 70.2 years, higher than the national value of 67.9. Indian art saw the introduction of Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [213], West Bengal has eighteen universities. A notable tree from the Sundarbans is the ubiquitous sundari (Heritiera fomes), from which the forest gets its name. And so, her announcement on Hindi Diwas (September 14) that the TMC’s Hindi cell would be restructured and Bengal would get a revamped Hindi academy. Religion wise, Hinduism is the major religion in West Bengal with 70.5%, followed by Muslim with 27%. [55] In 1955 the former French enclave of Chandannagar, which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were also subsequently merged with West Bengal. [83], West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The situation in at West Bengal in Hindu-majority India, bordering Muslim-majority Bangladesh, illustrates the inherent problems to non-Muslim societies of a growing Muslim population. One branch enters Bangladesh as the Padma, or Pôdda, while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River. Kolkata is the capital city of West Bengal. Population of West Bengal - Located between Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal, West Bengal is fourth most populous state in India. The highest daytime temperatures range from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). [217] In 1855 the Hindu College was renamed the Presidency College. [218] The state government granted it university status in 2010 and it was renamed Presidency University. A non-formal school project run by an NGO of tribal Santals in West Bengal proves that matters need not be that way. Ferries are a principal mode of transport in the southern part of the state, especially in the Sundarbans area. The region was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[8][9]. As of 2011, Hinduism is the most common religion, with adherents representing 70.54% of the total population. 3) Some of the West Bengal samples are in the Bangladesh (collected from Dhaka) distribution. West Bengal is the fourth populous most state of India. Mosques, madrasas and khanqahs were built throughout these stages. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. [129] West Bengal has been able to attract 2% of the foreign direct investment in the last decade.[130]. 2) Kayastha are generic West Bengalis. [156] The Hindu population of West Bengal is 64,385,546 while the Muslim population is 24,654,825, according to the 2011 census. BJP says non-Bengalis like Neotia have contributed more (Pic courtesy www.mid-day.com. Today people of diverse religious and ethnic backgrounds partake in the festivities. 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